Tip of the Week: Facilitating Pharmacy Employee Self-Efficacy


Pharmacy managers should offer access and incentivize pharmacy staff to take part in self-development activities that can promote self-efficacy.

Supervising employees and assuming leadership roles imply that you are taking accountability for the work productivity of others. If you are responsible for the work productivity of others, then it is in your best interest to provide them with the tools and resources they need to get the job done.

This might mean capital or physical resources, including equipment and appropriate staffing levels. It also means taking responsibility for the persons under your supervision to handle, even flourish, in the assigned tasks.

The right mix of skills and attitudes together form an employee’s self-efficacy beliefs, in which an individual acknowledges confidence in their ability to perform certain tasks.

Farrell et al examined whether the self-efficacy of pharmacists was enhanced following their participation in an online learning module.1 Specifically, the training aimed to help them incorporate the ADAPT (ADapting pharmacists’ skills and Approaches to maximize drug Therapy effectiveness) model into practice.

The program was designed to enhance pharmacists’ patient care and collaboration skills. The program included readings and exercises on teamwork and group dynamics, motivational interviewing, assertiveness, delineating tasks, prioritizing risks, pharmacoepidemiolgical principles, and effective delegation.

Surveys and interviews of ADAPT graduates saw their confidence rise in all aspects as a result of the program, including providing medication reviews, collaborating with other health professionals, interviewing patients, making evidence-based decisions, documenting care, and developing care plans. This resulted in an increase for those pharmacists in the number of billable services they provided and actual increases in reimbursement for billable services by pharmacists.

The online ADAPT program was demonstrated to be successful. Likewise, there are many such programs available to pharmacists, including but not limited to advanced medication therapy management training, immunization certification, and leadership courses.

Many of these are geared toward the working professional, or in other words, offered through online study or on weekends, or through self-direction. Pharmacy managers should not only take advantage of some of these offerings themselves, but offer access or even incentivize pharmacy staff to take part in self-development activities that can promote self-efficacy.

It might end up meaning success in diversifying the pharmacy’s revenue streams, but at the very least, it will result in improved competence and effectiveness of employees, along with a clear message to them that you are a supportive leader.

Additional information about Leadership and Organizational Structure and Behavior, and Implementing Value-Added Pharmacy Services can be found in Pharmacy Management: Essentials for All Practice Settings, 5e.

1Farrell B, Archibald D, Pizzola L, et al. Impact on confidence and practice: How the ADAPT online patient care skills program made a difference for pharmacists. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2019;15(10):1251-1258.

About the Author

Shane P. Desselle, RPh, PhD, FAPhA, professor of Social/Behavioral Pharmacy at Touro University California.

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