- Reduction of PGE2 production by the inhibition of COX-2 activity mediated through decreasing NO production
- Improvement of effective immune synapse formation in naive T cells and the initiation of T cell activation signals
- Modulation of Th1/Th2 balance. Higher natural killer cell activity and changes in dendritic function, such as lower IL-12 production and migration, were observed
In a review article published in Nutrients, the authors highlighted several studies that were done in people over age 60 years, and in smokers. The best results were in male smokers who experienced 69% lower incidence of pneumonia. This group smoked 5–19 cigarettes per day at baseline and exercised at leisure time. Also, elderly nursing home residents showed fewer upper respiratory infections and lower incidence of common cold.
People who are exposed to other toxins, besides smoke, and those with specific infectious disease states should also be studied separately.
During the cold and flu season good nutrition and proper sleep is essential. Foods high in vitamin E are vegetable oils (especially wheat germ oil), nuts, kiwi, mango, spinach, broccoli, tomatoes, eggs, fish, and avocados.
Lee GY, Han SN. The Role of Vitamin E in Immunity. Nutrients. 2018;10(11):1614. Published 2018 Nov 1. doi:10.3390/nu10111614
Gunda Siska, PharmD
Gunda Siska, PharmD, has worked in various fields within the pharmaceutical industry as a licensed pharmacist for more than 20 years. She is currently a staff hospital pharmacist assisting nurses and doctors with drug prescribing, administration, and dispensing, as well as independently monitoring and dosing highly toxic and dangerous drugs. For 2 years, she was concurrently a consultant pharmacist for skilled nursing facilities and nursing homes. Dr. Siska is a member of the New Mexico Society of Health-System Pharmacists and the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine. Follow her on Twitter @GundaSiska