Pharmacy Clinical Pearl of the Day: Seizures


Types of seizure include focal seizures with impaired awareness, generalized seizures without loss of consciousness, and generalized seizures, such as absence seizures.

Clinical Pearl of the Day: Seizures 

A seizure is a sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain.


  • Symptoms include temporary confusion, a staring spell, uncontrollable jerking movement, loss of consciousness or awareness, fear, and anxiety.
  • Types include focal seizures with impaired awareness; generalized seizures without loss of consciousness; and generalized seizures, including absence seizures, tonic seizures, atonic seizures, clonic seizures, myoclonic seizures, and tonic-clonic seizures
  • Causes may include high fever, lack of sleep, flashing lights, low blood sodium, head trauma, autoimmune disorders, stroke, brain tumor, alcohol misuse, and viral infections.
  • Treatment options may include carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproic acid, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, phenobarbital and zonisamide.


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