Pharmacy Clinical Pearl of the Day: Galactorrhea


Galactorrhea usually occurs in women, even those who have never had children, or after menopause.

Clinical Pearl of the Day: Galactorrhea

Galactorrhea is a milky nipple discharge unrelated to the normal milk production of breast-feeding.


  • Galactorrhea itself isn't a disease, but it could be a sign of an underlying problem.
  • It typically occurs in women, even those who have never had children, or after menopause.
  • Galactorrhea can happen in men and even in infants.
  • Excessive breast stimulation, medication adverse effects, or disorders of the pituitary gland all may contribute to galactorrhea.
  • Symptoms include persistent milky nipple discharge, one or both breasts affected, absent or irregular menstrual periods, headaches, or vision problems.
  • Causes: Medications, opioid use, herbal supplements, birth control pills, chronic kidney disease, excessive breast stimulation, nerve damage, spinal cord surgery, and stress.
  • Diagnosis: Physical exam, blood test, pregnancy test, mammography, ultrasound, and possible MRI.
  • Treatment may include stopping some medications that cause galactorrhea—levothyroxine if thyroid gland is involved; taking medications to make the tumors smaller for surgery; and taking medications, such as bromocriptine or cabergoline, to lower the prolactin levels.


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