Previous research has supported coffee consumption for reducing the risk of diseases such as cancer.
The potential benefits of moderate coffee consumption outweigh the risks, according to a study published in Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety.
Conflicting evidence has surrounded the benefits of coffee for years, with some evidence existing that supports a beneficial impact from coffee consumption reducing the risk of certain types of cancers.
For the study, researchers systematically reviewed 1277 studies from 1970 to present day that explored the effects of coffee on human health. Moderate coffee drinking was defined as 3 to 4 cups per day.
The review created an exhaustive list of potential health benefits and risks from drinking coffee on health outcomes, such as total mortality, cancer, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal conditions, metabolic health, neurological disorders, and other miscellaneous health outcomes.
Researchers found the general scientific consensus was that regular, moderate coffee drinking had a neutral effect on health, or could be mildly beneficial.
Since the research was largely based on observational data, the causality of risks and benefits could not be established for either, the authors noted. More research is needed to quantify the benefit-risk balance of coffee consumption, and to identify which of the active ingredients in coffee induce the health benefits