A study from the University of Barcelona determined that pain from menstrual cramps can be relieved significantly by ibuprofen and arginine. Dr. Camil Castelo-Branco and colleagues studied 1093 women, ranging in age from 13 to 51, who reported having menstrual cramps. Within 15 minutes of administering ibuprofen arginine, pain decreased significantly in 82% of the women. At 45 minutes, 99% of the women reported pain relief. According to researchers, the ibuprofen arginine formulation reaches peak blood concentration 20 minutes after administration. Less than 5% of the women experienced side effects, which included stomach pain and nausea. Thirty-nine percent of the women reported that their menstrual cramps interfered with daily activities such as work and school. After taking the ibuprofen arginine combination, that statistic fell to 21%. The authors concluded, "Ibuprofen arginine demonstrated a fast-acting onset of pain relief, was safe and effective in the treatment of this condition, and facilitated normal daily functions during menstruation."