A common clinical indicator of inflammation and immune status may be used to predict mortality in patients, according to MD Magazine. A new study has found that low lymphocyte levels in patients were associated with greater rates of mortality, including rates of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and respiratory infections. With this information, researchers hope to design systems that allow physicians to use pragmatic immune status indicators to ensure that the 10% to 20% of the generation population at the highest risk of mortality do not miss out on preventative care and early detection services.

Researchers have found that initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) immediately after birth provided measurable benefits for infants who had acquired HIV in Botswana, according to Contagion Live. The study enrolled infants from 2 maternity hospitals in the Gaborone and Francistown regions of Botswana. Once infants began ART within the first days following their births, the study team compared their results with infants who did not receive ART immediately. According to the study, infants who had begun ART after birth had significantly smaller reservoir cell counts than adults who were on ART for an extended period, indicating that ART initiation within hours after birth is efficacious.

Detecting chronic kidney disease (CKD) with 2 simple tests and treating it based on severity can improve health outcomes for patients with diabetes and hypertension while lowering the cost of care, according to The American Journal of Managed Care. Primary care physicians who used the inexpensive, underutilized urine albumin-creatinine ratio test in combination with the more common estimated glomerular filtration rate blood test were able to better diagnose the severity of CKD and develop treatments that reduced hospital stays and readmissions. The study authors estimate that the combination of tests could categorize kidney disease and give physicians the information they need to develop the most appropriate treatment plan for their patients.