Herpes simplex labialis (HSL), also commonly referred to as cold sores or fever blisters, typically is caused by the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). HSV-2 generally is responsible for causing genital herpes. Either form of the virus, however, can cause cold sores or genital herpes if the skin comes into contact with it.
Individuals may experience itching, burning, and a tingling sensation a few days before an outbreak of HSL. An outbreak can be characterized by the formation of painful, fluid-filled blisters on the lips and the edge of the mouth.1-3
Once a person becomes infected with the virus, the person is infected for life, although he or she will experience periods of dormancy and reactivation phases.1 The majority of cold sore outbreaks are self-treatable and heal within 10 to 14 days without scarring or complications.1
Numerous factors may increase incidences of outbreaks1-4:
Currently, docosanol 10% (Abreva; manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline) is the only OTC product approved by the FDA to shorten healing time as well as both the severity and the duration of the symptoms associated with HSL. This product inhibits direct fusion between the herpes virus and the human cell plasma membrane, thus averting viral replication.1,2 It is intended for external use only by individuals 12 years and older and should be applied topically 5 times daily until the sore is gone.
In addition, a number of topical OTC products?analgesics, antipruritics, anesthetics, and skin protectants?are available to provide symptomatic relief, but not for reducing the duration of symptoms1 (Table). The use of topical triple antibiotic ointments or systemic antibiotics may be necessary if the patient has any signs of a secondary infection.1
Tension headaches are the most prevalent, affecting 75% to 90% of adults in the United States. They are more common in women than in men.2,6 Causes include stress, anxiety, fatigue, eyestrain, and muscular tension. 2,6
Migraines are the second most common type of primary headache. They affect an estimated 20% to 25% of the population, including children.2 Women experience a greater incidence than men. The majority of women suffer migraine attacks during the premenstrual cycle or at specific times before, during, and after menses.2 Incidence is equal among boys and girls before puberty and typically disappears in boys after puberty.2
There are 2 types of migraines: with aura and without aura. Migraines may be triggered by stress; anxiety; changes in weather, altitude, and/or air pressure; hormonal changes such as during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy; environmental factors such as noise, bright lights, or certain odors; food sensitivities; alcohol consumption; use of certain pharmacologic agents (eg, nitrates, oral contraceptives, nifedipine, estrogen replacement therapy); and changes in sleep or eating patterns.2,3
Cluster headaches are the least common of the primary headaches, affecting 0.1% of the population. About 85% to 90% of individuals experiencing them are men.4,7 These headaches can occur daily in clusters of weeks or months. Individuals suspected of having cluster headaches should be encouraged to seek medical care from their primary health care provider.4,7
Secondary headaches occur as the result of another underlying medical condition (eg, sinusitis, severe hypertension, head trauma, hematomas, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, metabolic disorders, cerebral hemorrhage, and meningitis).7-9 Patients experiencing secondary headaches, those with chronic headaches, and those with severe headaches should always be referred for further medical evaluation and treatment.
Pharmacists always should counsel patients on the proper use, recommended duration, and adverse effects associated with the use of these products. They should remind patients about the potential for rebound headaches that may occur with medication overuse.
Pharmacists also should advise patients to become familiar with factors that may possibly trigger their headaches and to avoid these triggers when feasible. Patients can incorporate various nonpharmacologic measures that may alleviate or reduce the incidence of headaches, such as relaxation techniques and getting an adequate amount of sleep. In addition, patients should be encouraged to contact their primary health care provider if their headaches increase in intensity and frequency.
1. Klasser G, Greene C. Oral pain and discomfort. In: Berardi RR, Kroon LA, McDermott JH, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 15th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association; 2006:677-708.
2. Abreva Web site. Available at: www.abreva.com.
3. Cold Sore. Mayo Clinic Web site. Available at: www.mayoclinic.com/health/cold-sore/DS00358/DSECTION=3.
4. Cold Sores?Topic Overview. WebMD Web site. Available at: www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/Cold-Sores-Topic-Overview.
1. Health Care Topics: Headache, Doctors of Internal Medicine Web site. Available at: www.doctorsforadults.com/topics/dfa_head.htm. Accessed July 3, 2007.
2. Remington T. Headache. In: Berardi RR, Kroon LA, McDermott JH, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 15th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association; 2006:69-89.
3. Causes of Headaches. Excedrin Web site. Available at: www.excedrin.com/headache-causes.shtml. Accessed July 7, 2007.
4. Headache Types. Excedrin Web site. Available at: www.excedrin.com/headache-types.shtml. Accessed July 7, 2007.
5. Tension-type headaches. Bayer HealthCare Web site. Available at: www.aspirin.com/aoi/hfh/tension_type_en.html. Accessed July 7, 2007.
6. Headache. Neurology Channel Web site. Available at: www.neurologychannel.com/headache. Accessed July 5, 2007.
7. Headache. MedicineNet Web site. Available at: www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=20628&pf=3&page=1.
8. Secondary Headaches. American Headache Society Web site. Available at: www.achenet.org/education/patients/SecondaryHeadaches.asp.
9. Headache. Merck Manual Web site. Available at: www.merck.com/mmpe/sec16/ch216/ch216a.html#CACCDJAH.
One study linked multiple pregnancies to an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation later in life, and another investigated the association between premature delivery and cardiovascular disease.
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