The first study to evaluate the influence of gender-based violence as a risk factor for HIV/AIDS in South Africa demonstrated that women in abusive relationships are more apt to be infected with the virus. The researchers interviewed 1336 pregnant South African women at 4 clinics in Soweto about their partner, their sexual behavior, and violence in their relationships. Also, the women were tested for HIV.
The researchers determined that 55% of the women in the study reported having been physically or sexually assaulted by a male partner. More than 30% had been assaulted within the past 12 months, and 1 in 5 had been assaulted more than 1 time in the last year. The researchers learned that women who had been physically abused or whose partner showed excessive control in the relationship had a 50% higher incidence of HIV infection, compared with other women. (The findings were reported in The Lancet, May 1, 2004.)
One study linked multiple pregnancies to an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation later in life, and another investigated the association between premature delivery and cardiovascular disease.
Clinical features with downloadable PDFs