Endocarditis is defined as inflammation of the endocardium, which lines the interior of the heart and its valves. Infective endocarditis (IE) is an uncommon but life-threatening infection of the heart lining and valves.1
Recommendations have been available for a number of years for patients at risk of developing IE when undergoing a variety of procedures or tests. The American Heart Association (AHA) published its last recommendations for the prevention of IE about 10 years ago.2 In May 2007, a writing group charged by the AHA published its revised recommendations for the prevention of IE.1 The following is taken directly from selected sections of the AHA publication and highlights several issues incorporated in the new guidelines. When each section is discussed, the wording used in the AHA statements is unchanged to avoid any deviation from the original meaning of the AHA recommendations.
In these guidelines, the usual American College of Cardiology and AHA recommendation classifications and levels of evidence (LOE) were used.
Classification and LOE of Recommendations
? In patients with underlying cardiac conditions associated with the highest risk of adverse outcome from IE (Table 1), IE prophylaxis for dental procedures may be reasonable, even though we acknowledge that its effectiveness is unknown (Class IIb, LOE B)
? Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with the conditions listed in Table 1 who undergo any dental procedure that involves the gingival tissues or periapical region of a tooth and for those procedures that perforate the oral mucosa (Table 2). Although IE prophylaxis may be reasonable for these patients, its effectiveness is unknown (Class IIb, LOE C).
? Antibiotic prophylaxis with a regimen listed in Table 3 may be considered (Class IIb, LOE C) for patients with the conditions listed in Table 1 who undergo an invasive procedure of the respiratory tract that involves incision or biopsy of the respiratory mucosa, such as tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
? The administration of prophylactic antibiotics solely to prevent endocarditis is not recommended for patients who undergo gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) tract procedures, including diagnostic esophagogas-troduo-denoscopy or colonoscopy
(Class III, LOE B)
? For patients with the conditions listed in Table 1 who have an established GI or GU tract infection, or for those who receive antibiotic therapy to prevent wound infection or sepsis associated with a GI or GU tract procedure, it may be reasonable that the antibiotic regimen include an agent active against enterococci, such as penicillin, ampicillin, piperacillin, or van-comycin (Class IIb, LOE B); however, no published studies demonstrate that such therapy would prevent enterococcal IE
The recent recommendations will result in fewer patients needing antibiotic prophylaxis, because IE prophylax-is should be limited to the conditions listed in Table 1 only. There is no extensive, concrete evidence that prophylax-is is effective, and, as a result, most of the AHA recommendations are categorized as Class IIb.
Dr. Tafreshi is professor and director of Cardiology Pharmacy Practice Residency at Midwestern University College of Pharmacy?Glendale (MWU-CPG), Ariz. At the time of submission of this article, Ms. Sheckler was a senior MWU-CPG pharmacy student. Dr. Kauzmeyan is a medical consultant.
1.Wilson W, Taubert KA, Gewitz M, et al. Prevention of Infective Endocarditis: Guidelines from the American Heart Association: A Guideline From the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Available at: http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.183095v1. Accessed May 20, 2007.
2.Dajani AS, Taubert KA, Wilson W, et al. Prevention of bacterial endocarditis: recommendations by the American Heart Association. Circulation. 1997;96:358-366.
One study linked multiple pregnancies to an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation later in life, and another investigated the association between premature delivery and cardiovascular disease.
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