Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may also have to worry about osteoporosis. A study of 119 patients (81 patients with COPD and 38 healthy individuals) found that one third of the COPD patients met the criteria for osteoporosis, compared with 13% of the healthy group. The results of the study showed that 80% of the patients had some indications of previously undiagnosed bone thinning, either osteoporosis or osteopenia?a precursor to osteoporosis. Furthermore, the presence of osteoporosis in the group was associated with a loss of fat-free mass. In the current study, 17 patients were shown to have lower-than-normal fat-free mass while still having normal body mass indexes. The researchers also connected elevated markers of cellular protein breakdown with both body composition and lung disease severity.
One study linked multiple pregnancies to an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation later in life, and another investigated the association between premature delivery and cardiovascular disease.
Clinical features with downloadable PDFs