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Researchers in France have found differences in red wine drinkers? high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol that may be responsible for the drink?s protective effect against cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to a report in the August 2002 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. The study showed that regular and heavy drinkers? (most of whom drank red wine) HDL levels increased with increasing consumption of alcohol. In addition, these increased HDL levels are ?associated with an enrichment of HDL particles in polyunsaturated phospholipids, and particularly in those containing omega-3 fatty acids, an effect that might be, in itself, beneficial against cardiovascular disease,? according to lead author Bertrand Perret of the French medical research institute Inserm. HDL particles from wine drinkers also were richer in unsaturated phospho-lipids, particularly in those containing omega-3 fatty acids, which may protect against CVD as well.