VIDEO: Strategies for Optimizing Statin Therapy: Focus on Drug Interactions

JUNE 20, 2017
Featuring Mary Bridgeman, PharmD, BCPS, BCGP

Sponsored by Kowa Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.   

In the United States, among those between the ages of 55 and 64 years, nearly 1 in 3 individuals use prescription cholesterol-lowering medications.1 Many medications rely on the isoenzyme CYP3A4 for metabolism and elimination, including many statins.2,3 Managing potential drug interactions involving CYP3A4 and statins is an important priority for pharmacists.
 
In this video, Mary Bridgeman, PharmD, BCPS, BCGP, discusses opportunities for avoiding clinically relevant drug interactions with statin therapy.
 
 


References
  1. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Health, United States, 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus14.pdf. Accessed April 2017. 
  2. Falko JM. Balancing efficacy and tolerability issues with statin therapy--considerations for the use of pitavastatin in special patient populations. US Endocrinol. 2011;7(1):30-39. 
  3. Guengerich FP. Cytochrome p450 and chemical toxicology. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21(1):70-83. 

INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Drug therapy should be one component of multiple-risk-factor intervention in individuals who require modifications of their lipid profile. Lipid-altering agents should be used in addition to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol only when the response to diet and other nonpharmacological measures has been inadequate.

PRIMARY HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND MIXED DYSLIPIDEMIA
LIVALO (pitavastatin) is indicated as an adjunctive therapy to diet to reduce elevated total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), triglycerides (TG), and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in adult patients with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia.

LIMITATIONS OF USE
  • Doses of LIVALO greater than 4 mg once daily were associated with an increased risk for severe myopathy in premarketing clinical studies. Do not exceed 4-mg, once-daily dosing of LIVALO
  • The effect of LIVALO on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined
  • LIVALO has not been studied in Fredrickson Type I, III, and V dyslipidemias
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION FOR LIVALO® (PITAVASTATIN) TABLETS

CONTRAINDICATIONS
LIVALO is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to product components, in patients with active liver disease (which may include unexplained persistent elevations in hepatic transaminase levels), in women who are pregnant or may become pregnant, in nursing mothers, or in co-administration with cyclosporine.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Skeletal Muscle Effects

Cases of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including LIVALO. These risks can occur at any dose level, but increase in a dose-dependent manner.
  • LIVALO should be prescribed with caution in patients with predisposing factors for myopathy.
  • The risk of skeletal muscle effects (e.g., myopathy and rhabdomyolysis) increases in a dose-dependent manner with advanced age (≥65 years), renal impairment, inadequately treated hypothyroidism, and in combination use with fibrates or lipid-modifying doses of niacin (≥1 g/day).
  • LIVALO should be administered with caution in patients with impaired renal function, in elderly patients, or when used concomitantly with fibrates or lipid-modifying doses of niacin.
  • Concomitant administration of LIVALO with gemfibrozil should be avoided.
  • LIVALO therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. LIVALO therapy should also be temporarily withheld in any patient with an acute, serious condition suggestive of myopathy or predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis (e.g., sepsis; hypotension; dehydration; major surgery; trauma; severe metabolic, endocrine, and electrolyte disorders; or uncontrolled seizures).
  • Advise patients to promptly report unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever, and to discontinue LIVALO if these signs or symptoms appear.
  • Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors coadministered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing LIVALO with colchicine.
  • There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy without significant inflammation; improvement with immunosuppressive agents. IMNM has not been reported with LIVALO therapy.
  • Advise patients to promptly report if muscle signs and symptoms persist after discontinuing LIVALO as this may be a sign of IMNM requiring immediate medical attention.
Liver Enzyme Abnormalities
Increases in serum transaminases have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including LIVALO.
  • It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be performed before the initiation of LIVALO and if signs or symptoms of liver injury occur.
  • There have been rare postmarketing reports of fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure in patients taking statins, including pitavastatin. If serious liver injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with LIVALO, promptly interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not found do not restart LIVALO.
  • Advise patients to promptly report any symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine or jaundice.
  • LIVALO should be used with caution in patients who consume substantial quantities of alcohol and/or have a history of chronic liver disease.
Endocrine Function
Increases in HbA1c and fasting serum glucose levels have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including LIVALO.

ADVERSE REACTIONS
In short-term controlled studies, the most frequent adverse reactions reported by ≥2% of patients treated with LIVALO 1 mg, 2 mg, and 4 mg, respectively, and at a rate ≥ placebo were back pain (3.9%, 1.8%, 1.4% vs 2.9%), constipation (3.6%, 1.5%, 2.2% vs 1.9%), diarrhea (2.6%, 1.5%, 1.9% vs 1.9%), myalgia (1.9%, 2.8%, 3.1% vs 1.4%), and pain in extremity (2.3%, 0.6%, 0.9% vs 1.9%). This is not a complete listing of all reported adverse events.

For additional information please see the full Prescribing Information provided, or visit www.LivaloRx.com.

© Kowa Pharmaceuticals America, Inc. (2016) - LIV-RA-0101 PI V-11-2016

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