Pharmacy Times

Management of Acute Heart Failure

Author: Mohammad J. Tafreshi, PharmD, BCPS; Elizabeth B. Irving, PharmD; and Jennifer A. Ng, PharmD

With the aging of the population and improvement in medical care, an increased number of people are surviving an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequently developing heart failure (HF). There also has been an increasing number of hospitalizations for acute heart failure (AHF). A Task Force for AHF Guidelines was formed by the Committee for Practice Guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology. The following is a brief summary of the task force's recommendations for medications used in the management of patients with AHF.1 The Classes of Recommendations and Levels of Evidence used in these guidelines are comparable to what is commonly used by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association.


Classes of Recommendations

Levels of Evidence

Class I Recommendations

Class IIa Recommendations

Class IIb Recommendations

Other Comments

Dr. Tafreshi is an associate professor of pharmacy and medicine and director of the Cardiology Pharmacy Practice Residency at Midwestern University, College of Pharmacy—Glendale (MWU-CPG), Glendale, Ariz. At the time of the completion of this article, Dr. Irving was a senior pharmacy student at MWU-CPG. Dr. Ng is a clinical pharmacist at Banner Estrella Medical Center in Phoenix, Ariz.

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